More advanced education that is given in schools.

I. Preview questions

1. What do you know about the Ivan Franko National University in L’viv?

2. Where are the premises of the University?

3. In what building is your faculty situated?

4. What faculty are you a student of?

5. When did you learn about the University?

6. What other higher educational establishments in L’viv do you know?

II. Grammar phenomena

1. Notional/principal, auxiliary and modal verbs.

2. Four main forms of the verbs and their functions in sentences.

3. Word order in a sentence. Types of sentences.

4.Types of questions. Word order in questions. Auxiliary and modal verbs in questions.

III. Introductory phrases for answering questions

As you More advanced education that is given in schools. know…

As far as I know…

As it is known…

As a matter of fact…

As far as I can see…

As for me…

Frankly speaking…

To tell the truth…

In other words…

To my surprise…

To my regret…

Luckily (Fortunately)…

Unfortunately…

To make a long story short…

It is known far and wide…

To put it briefly…

To my mind…

In my opinion…

In my view…

IV. The following text is divided into parts. Before reading it, study the words to each part. Give the name to each part of the text:

Word-study:

University, n More advanced education that is given in schools. – institution conferring degrees and engaging in research and

more advanced education that is given in schools.

Rector, n – head of certain universities, colleges, schools, or religious institutions.

Dean, n – head of a department of studies.

Faculty, n – branch of learning, especially as studied in a university.

Department, n – one of several divisions of a university.

Chair, n – position of professor.

Academy, n – school for higher learning, usually for a special purpose.

Degree, n – step or stage in a scale or process.

L’viv University as an institution of higher learning was founded in the 17th century but in fact its history is More advanced education that is given in schools. rooted in much earlier times. In the 16th – 17th centuries the church brotherhoods were in the centre of cultural life in Ukraine. Supported by the commoners and clergy, the brotherhoods assisted in spreading the ideas of humanism, in developing science and education. L’viv Dormition Brotherhood was the oldest one in Ukraine. It became a significant centre of Ukrainian culture. In 1586 a Brotherhood School, a kind of secondary educational establishment was founded in L’viv. The school offered the following subjects: Church Slavonic, Greek, Latin and Polish, Mathematics, Grammar, Rhetoric, Astronomy, Philosophy. The members of L’viv More advanced education that is given in schools. Brotherhood had plans to turn their school into a higher educational establishment.

Till the middle of the 17th century there were no higher educational establishments in Ukraine. The Polish authorities were opposed to the idea of

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founding Ukrainian higher schools fearing they might become undesirable political and cultural centres. Young Ukrainians could get their higher education only at the University of Krakow and other European towns.

According to the clauses of the Hadiach Agreement concluded between Ukraine and Poland (1658), the Polish government pledged to open two higher schools in Ukraine. They were to be called Academies. The Academies were promised to be More advanced education that is given in schools. granted the same rights enjoyed by Krakow University. Powerful political circles of Poland were conscious of the possibility that national Ukrainian schools of higher learning might appear by their own efforts. The Society of Jesuits opened their secondary school (Collegium) in L’viv in 1608. They came to L’viv at the end of the 16th century standing for the protection of Catholicism in Ukraine. Realizing the possibility of converting the L’viv Brotherhood school into a University the Jesuits exerted powerful efforts aimed at granting their Collegium the status of the Academy. After numerous petitions on behalf of More advanced education that is given in schools. the Jesuits, on January 20, 1661 King Jan Kazimierz II signed the Diploma granting the Jesuits Collegium of L’viv “the honour of the Academy and the title of the University”. It was given the right to teach all contemporary university subjects and to certify the scientific degrees of Bachelor, Licentiate, Master, and Doctor.

Word-study

Premises, n – house or building with its outbuildings, land, etc.

Subordinate, v –treat as junior in rank or position.

Curriculum, n (pl. curricula) – course of study in a school, college,

university, etc.

Textbook, n – book giving instruction in a branch of learning.

Staff, n – group of More advanced education that is given in schools. assistants working together under a manager or head.

Grant, n – sth given, especially money or land from a government.

Decree, n – order given by a ruler or authority and having the force of a law.

Prominent, adj – outstanding, famous, distinguished, renowned.

From the time of its foundation till 1773 L’viv University was kept under the control of the Society of Jesuits and subordinated to the Superior General of Jesuits in Rome. First the University was located in the vicinity of today’s Krakivska Street. In the course of time the University was buying new premises. It also possessed a library More advanced education that is given in schools. and a printing mill. The University consisted of two departments: Philosophy and Theology. In 1667 there were about 500 students and 8 lecturers at the University.

Only in the middle of the 18th century had some changes been introduced into the curriculum. The Philosophy Department was mostly concerned with Aristotle’s philosophy which combined Logic, Physics and Metaphysics. Physics covered some elements of Mathematics, Astronomy, Biology, Meteorology; Metaphysics included problems of Psychology and Ethics. History, Geography, Ancient Greek and other subjects completed the curriculum. The course of studies lasted 3 years.



At the Theology Department the teaching course lasted for four years. The More advanced education that is given in schools. students were taught Church History, Old and New Testaments, Dogmatics, Church Law, Casuistry, Hebrew.

In the second half of the 18th century considerable changes were brought about by the development of natural sciences. In 1744 the chair of Mathematics was founded by F. Grodzicki, the author of a textbook in architecture and mathematics. A Laboratory of Mathematics and Physics was set up, the University’s Astronomy Observatory was opened. Polish, French, German, Geography and History began to be taught as majors.

In 1772 Halychyna became a part of the Austria-Hungary monarchy. In 1773, after the Society of Jesuits was More advanced education that is given in schools. disbanded, the University of L’viv was closed. The government of Kaiser Jozef II was paying much attention to education. Thus, on June 17, 1784, the staff and budget of the University were approved by the decision of the government. In October 1784, a Diploma was granted to the University administration. The Diploma decreed the four faculties: Philosophy, Law, Medicine and Theology. The grand opening of the University took place on November 16, 1784. The instruction was in German and Latin. In 1825 the Chair of Polish Language and Literature was founded. A two-year Ukrainian course provided teaching in Ukrainian at the Faculty of Theology More advanced education that is given in schools. in the years 1787-1806. During the following years many prominent people worked at the university writing textbooks, research papers, books, compiling dictionaries.

Word-study

Manuscript, n – book, etc., as first written out by hand.

Library, n – room or building for a collection of books kept there for reading.

Volume, n – book, esp. one of a set of books.

Council, n – group of persons appointed, elected, or chosen to give advice,

make rules, and carry out plans, manage affairs, etc., esp. of

government.

Certificate, n – written or printed statement, made by sb. In authority, that

may be used as proof or evidence of sth More advanced education that is given in schools..

Appoint, v – choose and name.

The events of the Polish insurrection of 1830-1831, and, especially, those of the revolution of 1848, actively joined by the students, had a significant impact on the development of the University of L’viv. In November 1848 the building of the University caught fire and its valuable Scholarly Library containing over 51,000 volumes as well as some very old manuscripts was destroyed.

Since 1851 the University had been housed in a building in Mykolai Street (now Hrushevs’kyi Street). In 1891 a separate building for chemical, pharmaceutical, geological and mineralogical schools was put up in present-day Kyrylo and Metodiy Street. The More advanced education that is given in schools. construction of other buildings of the newly-created Medical Faculty (in Pekars’ka Street) and the Faculty of Physics was completed in 1894 and 1897 respectively. The University Library premises were built in 1905.

Up till the end of the 19th century there were only three faculties at the University: Law, Philosophy and Theology. In 1891 Franz Joseph I, Austrian Emperor, issued a Decree for the establishment of the Medical Faculty. Each of the four faculties was governed by the Council of Professors consisting of the Dean, his deputy, all the professors of the faculty and two elected representatives from among the More advanced education that is given in schools. Docents (Associate Professors). Departments as we see them now did not exist. The notion “department” was associated with a person of a professor who delivered a certain course of lectures. However, there were scientific institutes at the University approximately corresponding to modern departments. To have the right to teach at the University, i.e. to get a position of a docent, one had to receive a doctoral degree first, go through the necessary habilitation and get certified by the Ministry of Education in Vienna.

The teaching staff continually grew in number. There were only 27 teachers in 1850-1851 academic More advanced education that is given in schools. year. In 1913-1914 heir number reached 169. As far as the total number of students is concerned there were 699 of them in 1851 (Law Faculty – 302, Theology Faculty – 308, Philosophy Faculty – 89). In 1913-1914 the total number of students reached 5,871 (Law – 3,493, Philosophy –1229, Medicine – 971, Theology – 358 students). The students of the University fell under different categories: there were ordinary, extraordinary students and supernumeraries, called “free listeners” who were allowed to attend lectures on non-official basis. The latter category was mainly female students who attended classes when permitted by teachers. Since 1897 they had been allowed to apply for the Faculty of Philosophy and later in 1900 – for the medical More advanced education that is given in schools. Faculty and its pharmaceutical department (but not the Law faculty).

The majority of students had to pay for their studies. Additional fees were charged for matriculation – a solemn ceremony of conferring the name of a student (studentship) upon successful applicants – for examinations, seminars, library membership, etc. The exception was the Faculty of Theology where the studies were fully free of charge. This privilege was also enjoyed by a certain category of students of other faculties who submitted the so-called certificate of poverty, i.e. who came from poor families but showed very good results in their exams. Besides, there was More advanced education that is given in schools. also a students’ grant fund created mainly on donations from private persons.

The course of studies at the faculties of Law and Theology lasted four years, at the Medical Faculty , five years and three years at its Pharmaceutical department. Students had the right of a free choice of subjects. Up to the 70s of the 19th century all the subjects were taught mainly in German at all the faculties, with the exception of the Faculty of Theology with Latin being the main language of instruction. Several languages were taught in Ukrainian and Polish. On April 27, 1869 the Polish More advanced education that is given in schools. Language was adopted as official one in the whole region by a special decree issued by the Emperor. In 1870 thirteen subjects were taught in Polish, while forty-six in German, thirteen in Latin and seven in Ukrainian. On July 4, 1871 Franz Joseph I issued another decree which removed limitations for delivering lectures in Polish and Ukrainian at the Faculties of Law and Philosophy.

The Ukrainian Language and Literature have been taught at the University since 1848 when the department of the Ukrainian Language and Literature was founded by Ya. Holovatskyi (1814-1888). In 1849 Ya. Holovatsky was appointed Rector of the University.

Word-study

Invade More advanced education that is given in schools., v – enter (a country) with armed forces in order to attack.

Oust, v – drive or push sb. Out.

Impose, v – force (sth. on others).

Discipline, n (here) – branch of knowledge; subject of instruction.

Witness, v – be present at and see.

After the disintegration of Austria-Hungary Halychyna was invaded by Poland. On November 18, 1918 the Ministry of Confessions and Education of Poland had decreed its own auspices over L’viv University and renamed it after the Polish King Jan Kazimierz. Polish became the only language of instruction, Latin being used to teach some disciplines at the Theological Department. The departments where More advanced education that is given in schools. Ukrainian was the language of instruction were closed down. In the course of two or three years all the professors and docents of Ukrainian descent were ousted, restrictions were also imposed on the admission of the Ukrainian youth to the University. It was only in the academic year of 1928-1929 that the Department of the Ukrainian Language headed by Professor I. Yaniv was opened at the University.

The 1920s and 1930s witnessed a very successful development of Mathematics at L’viv University, the School of Mathematics being headed by S Banakh (1892-1945). Such fields as Physics, Geology, Mineralogy, Chemistry, Physical Chemistry More advanced education that is given in schools., Geography, Economic Geography, Biology were functioning, with many famous scientists working fruitfully in the fields. The L’viv-Warsaw Philosophical School founded by K.Twardowski (1866-1938) was known far beyond the borders of Poland. In the twenties and thirties Arabic, Hebrew and Aramaic, Turkish, Mongolian, Sanscrit, Persian were taught at the University. The students enjoyed an opportunity to get acquainted with Oriental History.

Word-study

Tuition, n – (fee for) teaching.

Branch, n - (here) subject of knowledge.

Reorganize, v – organize again.

In September 1939 the Soviet troops entered L’viv and soon Halychyna became part of the Soviet Ukraine and, consequently, of the More advanced education that is given in schools. Soviet Union. L’viv University also underwent radical changes. In compliance with the Statute Books for Soviet Higher Schools the University was reorganized, tuition became free of charge and available to all citizens. The faculty of Theology was closed down, the Faculty of Medicine with the Department of Pharmaceutics was restructured into the Medical Institute. In October 1939 new chairs were set up: Marxism-Leninism, Dialectical and Historical Materialism, Political Economy, Ukrainian Language, Ukrainian Literature, Russian Language, Russian Literature, History of the USSR, History of Ukraine, Physical Training. They were responsible both for providing professional training of the would-be More advanced education that is given in schools. specialists and bringing them up in the spirit of Marxist-Leninist ideology and materialistic outlook.

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic conferred the name of I. Franko to L’viv University by its Decree of January 8, 1940. On January 15, 1940 the University started teaching in accordance with the Soviet curricula. Five faculties were functioning at the time: History, law, Languages and Literature (with the departments of the Ukrainian Language and Literature, Slavonic languages and Literature, Romance and Germanic Languages and Literature), Physics and Mathematics (with the departments of Mathematics, mechanics and Physics), Natural Sciences (with More advanced education that is given in schools. the departments of Biology, Chemistry, Geology, Geography). The great University Board and its smaller counterparts at the faculties were resolving all the issues concerning educational, methodological and research work, conferred academic degrees and approved positions. The chair remained the principal teaching and research unit organizing education, developing syllabi of colloquia and seminars, stimulating research. The course of studies at the University took four years at the faculties of Humanities and five years at those of Natural Sciences. In 1940 extra-mural teaching was introduced at the faculties of History, Languages and Literature, Natural Sciences, Physics and Mathematics. A branch of the More advanced education that is given in schools. All-Union Extramural Institute of law was launched at the Faculty of Law. In 1940 the first 33 post-graduate students began their courses.

Word-study

Valuable, adj – of great value, worth or use.

Fate, n – what is destined to happen.

Damage, n – harm or injury that causes loss of value.

Resume, v – go on after stopping for a time.

Personnel, n – persons employed in any work.

Retreat, n – (of an army) go back.

In June 1941 the German-Soviet war broke out, and the entire work of the University was brought to a halt. On the very first days of More advanced education that is given in schools. the German occupation 70 prominent scholars of the University, Politechnical and Medical Institutes were arrested and shot dead. The University was closed. The Library of the Chair of Folklore and Ethnography numbering 15,000 volumes was transported to Germany. The same fate struck the Scholarly Library of the University out of which 20,000 volumes of the most valuable books, about 5,000 incunabula and old prints, 500 valuable manuscripts had all been taken away with the main reading room damaged.

The University resumed its activity soon after the retreat of the German troops. A meeting of the teaching staff and technical personnel of the University took p More advanced education that is given in schools.-lace on July 30, 1944. The participants called on the intellectuals to take an active part in rebuilding the economy and restarting the educational establishments in L’viv. In the second half of 1944- the first half of 1945 the damaged University premises were being restored owing to the voluntary work of the students and teachers. The Observatory and the Botanic Gardens were partially restored too. On October 15, 1944 about two hundred students in their second to forth years resumed their studies. The students enrolled for the first year went to their classrooms on November 1, 1944 (226 persons). At the end of March 1945 the University numbered 799 students. The More advanced education that is given in schools. work of training laboratories, the Observatory, the Botanic Gardens, the Scholarly Library, the Geology and Botany Museum was resumed.

Word-study

Specialist, n – person who is an expert in a special branch of work or

study.

Launch, v – get started.

Publish, v – make known to the public by printing.

Print, v – make marks on (paper), etc., by pressing it with inked type.

Promote, v – give higher position or rank.

In 1948 Professor Heorhiy Savin, a well-known specialist in mechanics, was appointed Rector of the University. From 1951 to 1963 the University was headed by Professor Yevhen Lazarenko, a prominent scholar in geology More advanced education that is given in schools., Academician of the Academy of Arts and Sciences of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1963-1981 Professor M. Maksymovych, a specialist in electronic engineering, and in 1981-1990 Professor V. Chuhayov, a historian, were at the head of the University. Professor, Doctor Ivan Vakarchuk, a renowned scholar in the field of Theoretical Physics, has been Rector of the University since 1990.

Some structural changes were introduced after the war. New faculties were opened:

1945 – the Faculty of Chemistry;

1950 – the Faculty of Foreign Languages;

1953 – the Faculty of Mechanics and mathematics;

the Faculty of Physics;

the Faculty of Journalism;

1966 – the Faculty of Economics;

1969 - the Preparatory department More advanced education that is given in schools. for would-be students;

1975 – the Faculty for Foreign Students.

1989 – the Refreshment Course Institute;

1992 – the Faculty of International Relations;

the Faculty of Philosophy;

the Institute of Historical Research;

1997 – the Faculty of Pre-entrance University Preparation;

1998 – the Department of Translation Studies and Contrastive Linguistics.

The launching of the University Publishing House in 1947 marked a considerable headway in the development of teaching and research. In the course of fifty odd years of its existence a considerable number of books, manuals and periodicals have been published. Since 1989 the Publishing House has been functioning independently under the name of the “Svit” Publishers. The More advanced education that is given in schools. University faculties were quite active in launching the publishing projects. University Transactions began to come out in 1948. With time they came to cover all major subject areas. There are other publishing facilities for printing mainly methodological literature. The automatic offset printing laboratory at the University has been functioning since 1959.

For decades after WW II the University has been cultivating and attracting highly qualified staff. Hundreds of Candidate theses and quite a number of doctorates have been presented to the Qualification Councils in numerous specialities. The most prominent University scholars were awarded the highest titles of Corresponding and Acting members of More advanced education that is given in schools. the respective Academies, among them O. Vyalov, B. Hnedenko, H. Savin, I. Krypyakevych, V.Sobolev,

O. Parassiuk, Y. Pidstryhach, I. Yukhnovs’kyi, V. Panassiuk, R. Kucher, M. Brodin, Y. Fradkin. Well-known Ukrainian authors such as R. Bratun’,

D. Pavlychko, R. Fedoriv, R. Ivanychuk, V. Luchuk were once University students here.

At present the University is offering two major forms of tuition – full-time and extra-mural. Since 1993 a part of students have been admitted on the paying basis thus extending the budget allocated by the state. Since 1997 the following new units have come into existence within the teaching More advanced education that is given in schools. and research framework of the University: the Law College, the Pedagogical College, the Humanities Centre, the Institute of Literature Studies, the Italian language and Culture Resource Centre. The Postgraduate Course providing training in 89 specialities in the fields of Humanities and natural Sciences is a predominant form of the academic promotion of young scholars. The University major is open for 61 teaching, scholarly and engineering specialities and 109 branches. In February 1998 the overall number of full-time students amounted to 9,384 and those studying by correspondence numbered 3,466.

L’viv University has been expanding its ties with the higher schools of Hungary More advanced education that is given in schools., Germany, Poland, the USA, Canada, France, Austria, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Russia, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Portugal, Sweden, Moldova. Bilateral scientific meetings are becoming more and more versatile and manifold.


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