Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one

Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one

Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one vowel sound to another; such combinations are known diphthongs. Single vowel sounds may be short or long. The symbol [:] denotes a long sound.

The English monophthongs are: [I], [e], [ə], [3:], [V], [ǽ], [a:], [Q], [O:], [U]. The English diphthongs are: [aI], [eI], [OI], [aU], [əU], [Iə], [U@], [Eə].

2.1. Vowels.

2.1.1. Monophthongs

Monophthongs are vowels the articulation of which is almost unchanging. The quality of such vowels is relatively pure.

The English monophthongs Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one are: [I], [e], [ə], [3:], [V], [ǽ], [a:], [Q], [O:], [U].

In the pronunciation of diphthongs the organs of speech glide from one vowel position to another within the syllable. The starting point, the nucleus, is strong and distinct. Diphthongs consist of two clearly perceptible vowel elements.

The English diphthongs are: [aI], [eI], [OI], [aU], [əU], [Iə], [U@], [E@].

[I]

Definition. [I] is front-retracted, close, unrounded, short.

Articulation.The tongue is in the front part of the mouth but slightly retracted. The part of the tongue nearer to centre than to front is raised to a half-close position. The side rims Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one of the tongue make a light contact with the upper teeth. The tongue is lax. The lips are loosely spread. The mouth is slightly in. This vowel may occur in all positions in the word. For example: interval, minute, city, singing.

Suggestion. Make the sound, and make it obviously short. If necessary, contrast it with [I:].

[i:]

Definition.[i:]isfront, close, un-rounded, long.

Articulation.The tongue is in the front part of the mouth. The front of the tongue is rather high in the mouth. The tongue glides from a position nearer to the English vowel [I] to a more Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one advanced and high position. The tongue is tense, the side rims of it make a firm contact with the upper teeth. The lips are spread. This vowel occurs in all kinds of syllables. For example: bee, leave, eat.

Suggestion. A “smiling” sound. Smile widely, make and hold the sound. Demonstrate that it is a long sound.

[e]

Definition. [e] is front, mid, un-rounded, short.

Articulation.The tongue is in the front part of the mouth. The front of the tongue is raised to the hard palate but not so high as for [I]. The side rims of Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one the tongue make a light contact with the upper teeth. The tongue may be more tense than in the case of [I]. The lips are loosely spread. The mouth is slightly open but a bit more than for [I]. This vowel may occur in various positions with the exception of the open syllables. For example: many, head, left.

Suggestion. A short sound. Make the sound and point out the loosely spread position of your lips.

[æ]

Definition. [æ] is front, open, unrounded.

Articulation. The mouth is more open than for [e]. The tongue is in the front part of the mouth. The Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one front of the tongue is rather low in the mouth. The side rims of the tongue make a very slight contact with the back upper teeth. The tongue is more tense than in the case of [e]. This vowel occurs only in closed syllables.

For example: lad, pack, ladder.

Suggestion. Make the sound, and point out the neutrally open shape of your lips.

[V]

Definition. [V] is central, mid, un-rounded, short.

Articulation. The tongue is in the central part of the mouth. The front of the tongue is raised to the back of the hard palate just Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one above the fully open position. No contact is made between the tongue and the upper teeth. The tongue is lax. The jaws are considerably separated. The lips are neutrally open. The vowel is short. This vowel does not occur in the open syllables. For example: mother, come, cut, unusual.

Suggestion. Make the sound, and throw your head back slightly as you do it. This works well if contrasted with [æ].

[a:]

Definition.[a:] is back, open, un-rounded, long.

Articulation.The mouth is open. The tongue is in the back part of the mouth. The back of the Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one tongue is only slightly raised. No contact is made between the rims of the tongue and the upper teeth. The lips are neutral.This vowel may occur in all positions in the word.



For example: arm, large, far, artistic.

Suggestion.The “holding the baby” sound. Place your arms as though holding a baby, and say [a:] . Demonstrate that it is a long sound.

[Q]

Definition.[Q] is back, open, rounded, short.

Articulation.This vowel is articulated with the mouth wide open and slight open lip-rounding. The body of the tongue is even more retracted than in the case Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one of the vowel [a:]. The back of the tongue is only slightly raised. No contact is made between the rims of the tongue and the upper teeth.This vowel occurs only in closed syllables.

For example: opera, stock, lodge, impossible.

Suggestion. Make the sound, and point out your lightly rounded lips.

[O:]

Definition.[O:] is back, open, rounded, long.

Articulation.The tongue is in the back part of the mouth. The back of the tongue is raised to a half-open position. No contact is made between the rims of the tongue and the upper teeth. The mouth is less open Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one and the lips are more rounded than for the vowel [Q]. This vowel may occur in any position in a word.

For example: ought, born, talk, before, uniform.

Suggestion.The “either/or” sound. Liken it to the word or. Demonstrate that it is a long sound.

[U]

Definition.[U] is back-advanced, close, rounded, short.

Articulation.The whole body of the tongue is in the back part of the mouth. The part of the tongue nearer to the centre than to the back is raised just above the half-close position. There is no firm contact between Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one the side rims of the tongue and the upper teeth. The tongue is rather lax. The lips are rounded about the same amount as for [o:] but the mouth is not so open. The vowel is short. It never occurs in word initial positions.

For example: good, look, bosom, butcher.

Suggestion. A short sound. Exaggerate the forward position of your lips. One way into this sound is to ask students what noise a gorilla makes!

[u:]

Definition.[u:]isback, close, rounded, long.

Articulation.The tongue is in the back part of the mouth. The back of the tongue is Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one rather high in the mouth. The vowel is noticeably diphthongized. The tongue glides from a position nearer to [U] to a more retracted and high position. No firm contact is made between the rims of the tongue and the upper teeth. The tongue is tense. The lips are very closely rounded. The mouth is open only very little. The vowel is long. This vowel occurs in all kinds of syllables. For example: do, cool, fruit.

Suggestion. Make and hold the sound. Use a rising then falling intonation, as if you’ve heard something surprising, or some interesting gossip (uuUUuu). Demonstrate that Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one it is a long sound.

[3:]

Definition.[3:] is central, mid, un-rounded, long.

Articulation.The tongue is almost flat. The central part of the tongue is slightly higher than the front and the back of the tongue, which are raised between the half-close and half-open positions. No firm contact is made between the rims of the tongue and the upper teeth, the lips are neutrally spread, they do not cover the teeth. The passage between the teeth is rather narrow. The vowel is long.This vowel may occur in all positions in the word. For example Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one: earn, stir, serve, search, foreword.

Suggestion.The “something horrible” sound. Make and hold the sound, curl your upper lip, and pretend to look at something nasty. Look in the litter bin, if there is one to hand. Demonstrate that it is a long sound.

[ə]

Definition.[ə]iscentral, mid, unrounded, very short.

Articulation.The quality of [ə]is that of a central vowel which varies from a half-open to a half-close position. The lips are unrounded. The opening between the jaws is narrow. The vowel occurs in all unstressed positions in the word. This vowel occurs in all unstressed positions in Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one the word. Suggestion.The “Friday afternoon” sound. Relax your whole body, slump your shoulders, relax your face and mouth, and say [ə],as though completely exhausted.

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Документ Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. They may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one